Preventing and limiting harm

Article 22         Obligations towards the External Principal

Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 70 and 94, the psychologist must provide the External Principal with the Data required to itemise his or her invoices.


Article 23         Negative experiences

Psychologists may not expose Persons Involved to negative experiences unless that is necessary to achieve the aim of their Professional Activities and is the only means of achieving that aim. In that case they must aim to limit or to counteract the consequences of the negative experiences for the people involved to the extent possible.


Article 24         Statements about persons

Psychologists must exercise restraint when making professional statements in the media about persons, with or without their consent. They must be aware of their responsibility to prevent harm.


Article 25         Drastic indirect effects of the Professional Activities

Psychologists must be aware that their Professional Activities can have not only direct consequences but also drastic indirect effects. In that case they must use their best efforts to avoid harm.


Article 26         Prevention and limitation of animal suffering

If psychologists use laboratory animals in their scientific research, the preceding provision applies to the care and treatment of those animals.


Article 27         Prevention of abuse of results

Psychologists must ensure to the best of their ability that the results of their Professional Activities are not abused.


Article 28         Prevention of unintentional use and abuse of Reports

Psychologists must take measures to prevent a Report being used for any purpose other than that for which it was drawn up. For that purpose it must be stated in the Report that it is confidential. The Report must also state that the conclusions relate only to the purpose or question underlying the Report and cannot necessarily be used to answer other questions. The Report must also state after what period of time the conclusions may reasonably no longer be valid.


Article 29         Efforts by psychologists to prevent abuse of Reports

If psychologists are aware that an External Principal is not acting in accordance with the above article, they must draw his or her attention to that improper conduct.